On September 1, 2004, a federal jury returned a defense verdict in favor of a Manhattan Beach Police Officer accused of racial profiling. What began as a racial profiling case against multiple officers, the City of Manhattan Beach, and its Chief of Police, was narrowed when the district court granted summary judgment in favor of all defendants except the officer who initiated the traffic stop. Thereafter, both sides sought and were granted the right to take interlocutory appeals. The cross-appeals resulted in the Ninth Circuit upholding in district court’s rulings in Bingham v. City of Manhattan Beach, 329 F.3d 723 (9th Cir. 2003). The two day trial that followed featured the testimony of Lonni Ali, the wife of Muhammad Ali. The plaintiff is the life-long friend and personal photographer of Ali. Muhammad Ali was in attendance during his wife’s testimony and closing arguments.